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"I love this program!  It allows me to communicate with defense attorneys and prosecutors with numbers and graphics in my hand!  This goes a long way toward getting plea agreements and cases settled without a trial" -- Debra S., USA.

"BAC Tracker software has caused me to change the way in which I report alcohol use in medico-legal reports" -- Dr. Edward O., Australia.

"Expert witnesses involved in litigation arising from alcohol consumption will find BAC Tracker to be very useful" -- Dr. Michael C., USA.

"In conjunction with our continuing research, BAC Tracker has provided additional corroboration of our internal methods in the assessment of DUI cases" -- Dr. Thomas K., USA.

"BAC Tracker allows me to evaluate potential new cases, better understand my client's case, prepare for trial and when possible, use in trial" -- Patrick B., USA.

BAC Tracker - Uncertainty Management for Alcohol Extrapolation Cases: Widmark; Watson, et al.; Forrest; Seidl; Ulrich, et al.

Published References and Resources

To access our available published articles and references, please fill in the form below and click "Submit" - This will take you to a new page.  Once at the new page you may browse through each reference and click on the link to download the PDF copy.  The list of available references are listed below the form.  NOTE: Your email address will only be used to contact you regarding BAC Tracker software.


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Note: Some articles and resources may not be available for download


Forrest A.R.W., Kennedy R.T, Swofford H.J., and Vosk T.W. Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Evidence: Extrapolation, Interpretation, and Testimony in the Post-NAS Era. Workshop #W-21. American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Chicago, Illinois U.S.A. February 2011.

Ogden, E. & Swofford, H.J. An Integrated Software Model for Alcohol Absorption and Metabolism. Presented at the 19th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety (ICADTS), Oslo, Norway, 2010. 

"Alcohol Related Incidents: Tools for Effective Extrapolation". Presented at the Northwest Alcohol Conference, Park City, Utah, July 2010.

"Advantages of Computer Extrapolation for Alcohol Related Cases: The Forensic Toxicologist's Tool for Case Evaluation and Preparation". Presented at the Southwestern Association of Toxicologists, Dallas, Texas, May 2010.

"Alcohol Elimination Rate Variability and Subject-Altered General Consumption of Alcohol".  Presented at the American Academy of Forensic Sciences 62nd Annual Educational Conference, Seattle, Washington U.S.A., February 2010.

"Comparison of Blood Alcohol Drink-Equivalent From Models and Breath Measurements".  Presented at the American Academy of Forensic Sciences 62nd Annual Educational Conference, Seattle, Washington U.S.A., February 2010.

"Evaluation and Validation of the BAC-Tracker in Two Drinking Studies". Presented at the Society of Forensic Toxicologists Annual Educational Conference, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma U.S.A., October 2009.

"Using Software to Meet the Demands of Alcohol Estimation in the 21st Century." Presented at the Southern Association of Forensic Scientists Annual meeting, Orlando, Florida October 2009.

"Software Facilitated Forensic Extrapolations of Alcohol in the Judicial System: A Multi-Model Approach". Presented at the DUI-DWI Seminar, Atlanta, GA, U.S.A. April 2008.

"Understanding Computer Generated Pharmacokinetic Extrapolations of Blood Alcohol Concentration: Comparing Theoretical BAC versus Observed BAC". Presented at the Intoxilyzer� 8000 Operator�s Course, New Orleans, LA, U.S.A. September 2007.

"Scientific and Technological Advances in the Extrapolation of Blood Alcohol Concentration". Presented at the DUI-DWI Seminar, Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A. August 2007.

Zuba, D. & Piekoszewski, W. Uncertainty in Theoretical Calculations of Alcohol Concentration. Presented at the 17th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety (ICADTS), Glasgow, UK, 2004. 

Published Articles

Swofford, H.J. (2011) How to Extrapolate Alcohol With Certainty.  Forensic Magazine, 8(4).

DuPont, R.L. (2011) Drugged Driving Research: A White Paper. Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc. Drugged Driving Committee (Prepared for the National Institute on Drug Abuse)

Sadler, D. and Fox, J. (2011) Intra-Individual and Inter-Individual Variation in Breath Alcohol Pharmacokinetics: The Effect of Food on Absorption. Science and Justice. 51: 3-9

Vosk, T. (2010) Trial By Numbers: Uncertainty in the Quest for Truth and Justice. The Champion. 201009.

Jones, A.W. (2010) Evidence-Based Survey of the Elimination Rates of Ethanol From Blood With Applications in Forensic Casework. Forensic Science International. 200: 1-20.

Swofford, H.J. (2009) Alcohol in the 21st Century: New Standards, New Technology. Forensic Magazine 6(3).*

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009) (Free Executive Summary).

Swofford, H.J. (2008) Estimating Blood Alcohol Levels: Accounting for the Uncertainties in Alcohol Metabolism Using Computer Software. Forensic Magazine 2(7).*

Swofford, H.J. (2008) Estimating Blood Alcohol Concentration. Forensic Magazine 5(3).*

Posey, D. and Swofford, H.J. (2008) Understanding the Complex Nature and the Uncertainties Inherent in Alcohol Metabolism Using Computer Software. DWI Journal: Law and Science 23(3), 1-8.

Posey, D. and Mozayani, A. (2007) The Estimation of Blood Alcohol, Widmark Revisited. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology. 3: 33-39.

Gullberg, R.G. (2007) Estimating the Uncertainty Associated with Widmark�s Equation As Commonly Applied in Forensic Toxicology. Forensic Science International. 172: 33-9.

Barone, P. (2007) Using Software to Assist the Jury in Understanding Alcohol Metabolism Calculations. Michigan State Appellate Defender's Office Criminal Defense Newsletter 31(3).

Uemura, K., Fujimiya, T., Ohbora, Y., Yashuhara, M. and Yoshida, K. (2005) Individual Differences In the Kinetics of Alcohol Absorption and Elimination. Forensic Science , Medicine and Pathology. 1:24-27.

Norberg, A., Jones, A.W., Hahn, R.G., and Gabrielsson, J.L. (2003) Role of Variability in Explaining Ethanol Pharmacokinetics: Research and Forensic Applications. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 42(1) 1-31.

Seidl, S., Jenson, U., and Alt, A. (2000) The Calculation of Blood Ethanol Concentrations in Males and Females. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 114: 74-77.

Ulrich, L., Cramer, Y., and Zink, P. (1987) Calculation of Blood Alcohol Values From Alcohol Intake Using Individual Parameters. Blutalkohol 24: 192-8.

Forrest, A.R.W. (1986) The Estimation of Widmark�s Factor. J. of Forensic Science Society. 26(4): 249-252.

Watson, P.E., Watson, I.D., and Batt, R.D. (1981) Prediction of Blood Alcohol Concentrations in Human Subjects: Updating the Widmark Equation. Journal of the Studies on Alcohol.42: 547-556.

Widmark, EMP (1932) Die theoretischen Grundlagen und the praktische Verwendbarkeit der gerichtlich-medizinnischen Alkoholbestimmung, Berlin. Urban Schwarzenberg.

*Forensic Magazine � is free to qualified, forensic professionals. Click here for FREE subscription.

Other Resources

People of the State of Michigan v. Jabrocki, No. 08-5461-FD Opinion and Order Suppressing Defendant's Blood Alcohol Test Result in the Absence of a Measurement of Uncertainty, 2011.

City of Kent (Washington) v. McDaniel, Rith, Straight, No. K81862, K81680, K77149.  Order Suppressing Defendant's Breath Alcohol Measurement in the Absence of a Measurement of Uncertainty, 2011.

State of Washington v. Weimer, No. 7036A-09D Memorandum Decision on Motion to Suppress, 2010.

State of Washington v. Fausto, No. C076949 Order Suppressing Defendant�s Breath Alcohol Measurement in the Absence of a Measurement for Uncertainty, 2010.


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Disclaimer: BAC-Tracker software provides estimates for general information and illustrative purposes.  BAC-Tracker software should not be used as a substitute for scientific or medical expertise from a qualified professional.